Analysis on environmental problems and management

2022-08-05
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Analysis on environmental problems and management policies of packaging waste

packaging waste accounts for a considerable proportion of urban domestic waste. Some data show that the proportion of packaging waste in urban domestic waste in China is similar to that in developed countries, and the increasing trend is increasingly obvious. However, does the production of a large amount of packaging waste only mean a serious waste of resources and environmental pollution? Many countries have implemented special management on packaging waste, and adopted various means such as economic policy, legislative management, publicity and education. However, not all countries regard packaging waste as special waste. In China, should the packaging be specially managed? How to treat the environmental problems of packaging objectively and how to manage the packaging waste are worthy of in-depth discussion. Foreign countries have gained some good experiences in the practice of packaging waste management, but before considering how to learn from these experiences, on the one hand, we need to make a comprehensive evaluation of foreign packaging management policies, on the other hand, we need to make a deep analysis in combination with China's national conditions and the characteristics of China's packaging waste, so as to make a correct choice

I. connotation and characteristics of packaging

packaging, as a part of cable raw materials, mainly includes polyethylene resin, ethylene propylene rubber, halogen-free flame retardant cable materials for power insulation and signal cables, and is a tangible addition to the product. The first basic attribute of packaging is protection, which protects the product from all kinds of potential damage from climate, bacteria, transportation and the product from production to final use. Packaging plays an important role in protecting the integrity of the product. The second basic attribute of packaging is containment, that is, to prevent product leakage. The third basic attribute of packaging is identifiability

packaging should also follow the principle of minimum impact on the environment when realizing the above basic attributes. It is worth noting that the principle of minimum impact of packaging on the environment must be based on the realization of the basic functions of packaging

packaging is characterized by large quantity and short service life. Packaging products are mostly disposable consumer goods. The cycle from raw materials to product processing, consumption to waste is generally short. When the products reach the hands of consumers, the life of packaging will end. This characteristic of packaging is one of the important reasons that packaging waste attracts people's attention

what the packaging industry provides to the society is not final consumer goods, but a component of the products of other industries. Therefore, packaging enterprises are closely related to the production industry of the products they package, and the development of packaging is also closely related to the development of the market of the products they package. On the one hand, the updating and upgrading of products stimulated the demand for packaging; On the other hand, the improvement of packaging also promotes the production of products. Paper, plastic, metal, glass and other packaging products are the main body of the packaging industry, and packaging waste is mainly composed of these types of materials. Among them, the paper packaging industry ranks first, and its share has a trend of further improvement; The plastic packaging industry followed closely. About model selection: the model selection of the equipment accounts for more than half of the packaging industry, with an annual output of tens of millions of tons. Such a large number of packaging products will produce a considerable amount of packaging waste after consumption

II. Analysis of environmental problems of packaging waste

environmental problems of packaging waste have always attracted people's attention. Different understandings of this problem have led to differences in packaging waste management policies. Environmentalists generally believe that the environmental problem of packaging waste is serious. A large number of packaging waste pollutes the environment and wastes resources, so it needs to be managed and limited; The general packaging people have different views. Although the amount of packaging waste is huge, packaging has made great contributions to reducing economic losses and promoting economic development. Therefore, it is difficult to explain that packaging waste has a significant impact on the environment. Although these different opinions may come from the consideration of the self-interest of the packaging industry, their reasonable side is worth discussing. At least it can be seen that the environmental problems of packaging waste are more complex than people generally think

it should be recognized that, compared with other environmental problems encountered in the real world, the environmental impact of packaging waste is in a lower position. However, packaging waste has attracted special attention due to the following reasons: first, the number of packages is huge. The focus on packaging waste initially came from the emergence of waste. As the government is more and more difficult to bear the increasing disposal costs due to the growth of garbage, people will naturally focus on the management of packaging waste with a huge amount of garbage. Second, consumers with increasing environmental awareness are worried about the large amount of packaging waste that can be seen everywhere in the garbage, especially the phenomenon of "white pollution" such as plastic bags and excessive packaging can be found everywhere, which is even more abhorrent. Therefore, packaging waste soon became the target of abusing resources and polluting the environment and was widely attacked

the view that packaging will inevitably lead to resource consumption and environmental pollution is not comprehensive. Although the manufacturing of packaging does require the consumption of resources and energy, resulting in a large amount of waste, on the other hand, due to the protective effect of packaging on products, it reduces the economic losses such as product spillage and food deterioration, and in fact avoids the generation of a large part of waste. It should be said that the huge number of packages is determined by the nature of the package itself. As the products are abundant and various, there is a great demand for packaging. It is also obvious that packaging can protect commodities and promote sales. Novel and exquisite packaging has brought convenience and enjoyment to people's life, and even improved the quality of life. Therefore, it must be recognized that the existence of packaging is of great significance to protect the environment and promote economic development

however, the environmental problems of packaging still exist and are prominent in some aspects. The main problems lie in the control of appropriate packaging and the management of packaging wastes that do great harm to the environment. First of all, the biggest feature of the over wrapped reciprocating single screw extruder is that it should be eliminated to realize the high filling processing of different materials. It not only wastes resources and pollutes the environment, but also deceives consumers to a certain extent, and seeks illegitimate income at the expense of the environment and the interests of consumers. Secondly, the use of packaging materials with greater environmental hazards should be avoided. As the packaging has the characteristics of large quantity and short service life, if the packaging materials are not carefully selected, a large number of packaging wastes will accumulate rapidly and have a serious impact on the environment. The key to solve the problem is how to determine whether the packaging is excessive and whether the packaging materials have a greater impact on the environment. The answer to these questions is not easy. It is necessary to make a scientific and comprehensive analysis with the help of life cycle assessment

III. life cycle assessment of packaging environmental impact

the application of life cycle analysis method in the packaging field is very typical. It comprehensively evaluates the energy consumption at each stage of the whole packaging process and the amount of waste or harmful substances discharged to the environment in stages, so as to comprehensively judge the environmental impact of packaging. Through the life cycle analysis method, it can effectively determine whether the packaging is appropriate, and identify the packaging materials that do great harm to the environment, so as to make effective management decisions

many studies using the life cycle assessment method show that it is not necessarily economical and effective to pay too much attention to the environmental impact of packaging only in the waste stage. For example, people have studied the environmental impact of plastic and paperboard packaging, and compared the effects of incineration, landfill and recycling of their wastes. The results show that the incineration of plastic packaging is better than recycling, and recycling is better than landfill; The paperboard packaging incineration is better than landfill, and landfill is better than recycling. For another example, the results of a study on paperboard packaging show that for a certain type of paper packaging, recycling seems to be better than incineration; For another kind of paper packaging, the situation is just the opposite. For another example, many comparative studies on disposable and non disposable packaging have proved that if the actual operating conditions are taken into account, the environmental impact of disposable packaging is smaller than that of non disposable packaging. There are many such research examples. Although they are specific conclusions under certain research conditions, they can not be generalized, but they can explain that the environmental impact of packaging can not be judged only from a certain stage or from a certain side. Therefore, the corresponding management policies can not be decided by subjective imagination. It can be seen that it is very important to analyze and evaluate the whole process of packaging according to the specific situation

An important conclusion of applying the idea of life cycle assessment to the management of packaging waste is that the recycling of packaging waste is valuable only if it really saves resources, reduces energy consumption and brings the lowest environmental pollution. In other words, it is also conditional to choose the recycling method to treat packaging waste. Blindly pursuing the recycling rate of packaging waste is not necessarily the most reasonable scheme. Sometimes the environmental impact or resource consumption caused by the recycling process may be greater than the direct treatment of packaging waste. The key to the problem is to analyze the environmental and economic benefits of the packaging waste recycling process, and compare the results with the direct disposal of packaging waste, so as to determine whether the packaging waste recycling is meaningful. Life cycle assessment is an effective method to provide this analysis, and can provide a basis for the formulation and selection of packaging waste management policies. Although in practice, the research on life cycle assessment is complex, time-consuming and laborious, and the assessment method itself is not mature, it represents a direction. It takes a scientific and objective attitude towards the understanding of the environmental impact of the whole packaging process and various options, which is more stable than relying on assumptions or looking at problems in a fragmented way, whether for the environment or long-term economic benefits. Life cycle assessment is still developing. It can not help answer all questions and make all decisions, but it is indeed a comprehensive and effective way of thinking

IV. suggestions on China's packaging waste management policies

China's packaging industry is developing rapidly, and the amount of packaging waste is rising. Compared with developed countries, Chinese packaging has the following characteristics: first, the amount of packaging used and discarded is still lower than that in developed countries, which is mainly caused by the gap in economic development level and different living habits. Secondly, the main packaging wastes in China's urban domestic waste, such as cardboard and PET bottles, have a high recovery rate due to their high recycling value. Therefore, the amount of recyclable packaging wastes in the waste is small, and it is difficult to further improve the recycling and reuse level of packaging wastes. Third, the development level of China's packaging industry is still uneven. The number of large enterprises with advanced technology and perfect management is limited. The management level of many small-scale enterprises is not high, and the development level of enterprises is uneven, which is unfavorable for the formulation and implementation of packaging waste management policies. In view of this, this paper puts forward the following suggestions for China's packaging waste management policy:

1 At present, it is not suitable for China to carry out special management on packaging waste.

it is the practice of many countries to carry out special management on packaging through separate legislation, but many countries have not implemented it. For example, unlike the European Union and most of its Member States, the United States has no national

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