Analysis on fire prevention of high-rise buildings

2022-08-03
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On February 9th, 2009, a fire broke out in the North Building of Beijing CCTV building; On november15,2010, a fire broke out in the high-rise apartment on Jiaozhou Road, Yuyao Road, Shanghai; In recent years, the shocking fire has put forward stricter requirements for the fire prevention of modern high-rise buildings, especially super high-rise buildings. The national standard code for fire protection design of high rise civil buildings gb50045- 1995 (2005 Edition) (hereinafter referred to as the "high standard") issued and used in 2005 has absorbed some new scientific and technological achievements after years of practical application, such as automatic sprinkler technology, positive pressure air supply machinery smoke exhaust technology, as well as the wide application of new fire-proof materials, fire-proof components and fire-proof accessories, which makes it possible to effectively meet the fire protection design of modern high-rise buildings. However, there are still many problems in the fire prevention of modern high-rise buildings

1 Analysis of technical problems in fire protection of high-rise buildings at the present stage

1.1 the use of glass curtain walls

this is controversial in the construction industry at home and abroad, such as Japan, Germany and other countries, which prohibit the construction of glass curtain walls. Although the glass curtain wall itself will not burn, its chimney effect will contribute to the spread of the fire, and the fire resistance of the glass curtain wall is not good. The fire soon fell, seriously affecting people's safety. Therefore, whether the glass curtain wall is used or needs to be restricted, perhaps "What measures should be taken to improve the main application of polyurethane adhesive in automobile windshield, lamp, filter element, interior ceiling, etc., has become an urgent technical problem to be solved.

1.2 fire management of high-rise buildings is difficult.

at present, there are many kinds of fire-fighting facilities in high-rise buildings, usually including automatic fire alarm, automatic sprinkler, automatic smoke control and exhaust Indoor and outdoor fire hydrants, fire rolling shutters and other systems, and some also have gas automatic fire extinguishing systems, deluge or water curtain systems, and automatic door closing device systems. However, the fire management personnel inside the building still follow the previous security personnel working system in terms of working system, not to mention how to carry out regular maintenance and testing, how to operate various fire-fighting facilities, and even some management personnel do not know how to judge whether the fire extinguishers are expired, Fire safety knowledge is very scarce

1.3 there are few roof helipads

the height regulations expressly require that "public buildings with a height of more than 10 and a standard floor area of more than 1000m2 should be provided with roof helipads or helicopter rescue facilities". However, due to various reasons such as building roof modeling and investment, many super high-rise buildings are not equipped with roof helipads. The reason given is that smoke proof staircases can effectively ensure the safe evacuation of personnel. Due to the absence of mandatory provisions in the code, many domestic buildings over 100m high are not provided with roof helicopter apron. Whether the future super high-rise buildings need to be set up, which must be set up, and which can not be set up, is one of the urgent fire safety technical problems to be solved at this stage

1.4 difficulty in setting up shelters

the height regulations also stipulates that "public buildings with a building height of more than 100m shall be provided with refuge floors (rooms), and between the two refuge floors, it should not exceed 15 floors". The basis for setting the refuge layer is that the refuge layer can play the role of vertical separation, but the vertical separation cannot be implemented without the refuge layer. However, many people believe that the setting of refuge floors will affect the facade form of buildings and cause a waste of funds. Secondly, whether people will voluntarily take refuge in the refuge floor in case of fire is also a problem, so many people advocate that more refuge rooms should be set up rather than concentrated refuge floors. How to solve this problem is also a security technical problem

1.5 fire protection audit is difficult

building fire protection audit is mainly aimed at raising problems and effectively solving existing problems in the stage of scheme design and feasibility study. However, the fact that it has been adjusted before leaving the factory is that the fire department has encountered many difficulties in building fire protection audit. The first is the trilateral project. From the perspective of saving money, the construction unit can see benefits as soon as possible. In the construction stage, it adopts the method of "design while construction", and some even change the fire protection design without authorization. The second is image engineering. Many image projects can not meet the requirements of current specifications, such as fire separation, fire lane and fire climbing. The third is to report for approval while constructing. The audit has not passed, but more than half of the project has been built. Many of them are not built according to the requirements modified by the audit, so there are many inherent hidden dangers. The fourth is to stop or postpone the construction of projects. Due to various historical reasons, there are many problems in many projects that have been stopped or delayed, such as small fire separation distance, no fire circulation lane, no fire climbing surface, insufficient number of evacuation stairs, wrong setting form, etc. However, because developers usually only pay attention to immediate interests, it is easy to ignore the "hidden investment" included in fire safety. Building such a high-rise building is like building a major fire hazard unit

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